Tuesday, February 17, 2009



These images are all from perception and communication class. They are 2D thumbnails of the Moore Building on campus. These thumbnails act a prototypes for the more detailed perspective drawings to come of the same building. 

There are many archetypes, prototypes, and hybrids throughout Greek and Roman culture. One main prototype is the Theater of Dionysus. It is a Greek theater that becomes very important to the Roman design called the  Roman amphitheater. As before, the Romans' expanded from the Greek theater, and made one that was more spacial and that could include more spectators'. The main difference between the two theaters is that the amphitheater is a full circle that is elevated, and the Greeks was half a circle. In the amphitheater you could view the stage all the way around, where as in the Greek theater you could only view the stage from one perspective. Also the columns derived in Greece act in the beginning as a prototype for the next design. It strictly becomes an "ideal" or an archetype in the period the it is widely recognized.  For example the Doric column was the prototype to the Ionic column. And all of these column designs can later become hybrids of the original Tuscan column.  Another main example of a prototype is  the Temple of Hera 1: The Wife of Zeus. It was the first try to honor her compared to overreaching development of the Temple of Hera 2. It becomes more refined with how the columns are set up. Also the Temple of Athena was a prototype for the Doric columns. They experimented a lot with what the perfect number of columns would be for the porch, court, and hearth. All of these terms archetype, prototype, and hybrid are all cohesive to form great pieces of architecture and design like the Romans' and Greeks'.
This is an image of Hadrian's Villa. As you can see it's opulence that caters to the wealthy, while silmultaneously caters to everyday civilians by giving them food. It is like a two for one deal.

The Romans' were probably one of the most resourceful civilizations, simply because of how they used ideas from the Greeks' and then they improved on them. The Roman society also was in the midst of the Greek ruins, which also allowed them to create knew ideas and develop knew materials. For example, the Romans' saw the stone that they Greeks' used and devised concrete, so that they could have stronger and more large scale buildings. They also saw that they did not have to use columns to support the structure they were to build. They finally noticed that concrete does the same thing. Therefore, this is the time that columns became purely decorative almost. There were a few situations in which they were for structural use; however, the Romans' were not as dependent upon the columns as the Greeks' were. Despite the fact that the Romans' made what the Greeks' had already created even better, I feel that without the inspiration of the Greek society that was in ruins around them. They would have not been as strong of a civilization as they are now because of them. Therefore, the Greek culture and society acted as a source to the Romans' to build their great empire. Which leads to one of their great architectural structures, the villa. The Romans' created the villa as a place for those whom are from great wealth to go retreat for a period of time, whether it be a weekend or a month. The villa was always outside of city walls, most importantly for the reason being since it was a place to retreat. Therefore, allowing the person to be under more relaxed laws of the city. In turn for the villas acting as a getaway place, they most importantly gave the Romans' farms. This is due to the fact that the villas were on hillsides and it really organized their farmland in  to more individual farms. So this is great because it produces food. One of the most important features about the villas are that they are centered around the courtyard. The courtyard acted as a natural ventilation system for the house, which was a more innovative feature. Also being that the people retreating to these villas were wealthy, they had slaves or "chore men."  The courtyard was the place where all of the chores take place. This was a must for the Romans' because they wanted everything to appear like everything was effortlessly done. One of the greatest villas ever designed in Roman architecture was Hadrian's Villa. It was very opulent, and consisted of many recreational amenities. It was so large, created on a very large scale. It was basically a mini city that took place within this one villa. So as you can see the villa became a very important source for producing food for the city and also for creating a getaway for prominent people of the legal embodiment. The invention of the villas runs parallel to other translations and adaptations of classical architecture. "Classical Greek and Roman architecture has had astounding influence both structurally and decoratively in subsequent periods, especially beginning with Renaissance Italy. Interpretations of classical architecture have been both literal translations and adaptations."(Blakemore, pg.28) The villas a the next translation to what is to come from Italy.  Each period of architecture serves an inspiration and/or building block for the next architectural development.  
This image is of the Aycock Auditorum, showing how it is an entourage.

This image represents a different form of entourage. However, it still keeps with the idea that there is one main speaker with a lot of people listening or being subjected to the speech. In this case the iced coffee represents the speaker because it is the main and only object in this composition. However, the group that surrounds it and that is subjected to it, would be all the people that drink this coffee and submerse themselves in it everyday. 
" The focus on urban life and civic activities required the development of new building types in Roman architecture, buildings that enclosed space for the use of the public. Although the cellas of Roman temples had several chambers to house the image of the god and a treasury, only priests entered these rooms. Other civic activities, however, such as legal proceedings, required a large, covered space where judges could hear cases, where litigants could wait their turn, and where the public could listen. "( Rothe, pg. 257)  Entourage in the context of Roman architecture means the surrounding of an important person by a group of subjects. Entourage was a word that really became prominent in Greek architecture with the Erechteion. The Erechteion was in sense created as a speaking area for all important peoples to hear. Within the Erechteion is the Porch of the Maidens. This porch consists of several naked women that are directed towards the Parthenon. Therefore, this become and entourage because you would of had one main person speaking on the porch with various people listening to the speech in the courtyard area between the Parthenon and the Erechteion. Also the Agora that the Greeks' created more or less for a market/civic space for the community. The Agora would heavily be considered as an entourage. It was the gathering place or melting pot of all aspects of the society coming to conduct life at this one place. Although, there were probably more than one reason for meeting at the Agora, the people still were being influenced by what was around them. Generally, the purpose of an entourage concept would be for someone important to be listened too or pronounced; whether it be a speech or someone selling food that is necessity to exist.  Today an example of an entourage would be the Aycock Auditorium on the UNCG campus. It is truly a modern day example of an entourage. It is a place of gathering, normally of students to listen to the "main speaker" which is now the chancellor. So I really do notice a lot of Greek and Roman influences within our society today. 
This is an example of a Roman stool. This is the piece of furniture design that showed hierarchy and power because only the wealthy could sit upon it. 
However, this is strictly an example, the Romans' tended to make their stools from bronze or silver. This one is made in bone and resin. 
This is a vignette in which I depicted hierarchy through color. I used the teal color to emphasize Jon's shirt and Suzanne's sketchbook because to me they were important. So to me I highlighted these objects to show that they were of more importance than all the other subjects in the composition. 
This is an example of an Ionic column. The Ionic column represents hierarchy because it is the column that represents more of a masculine quality. And perhaps it is the curls atop the column that represent the men of the day because they wore their hair with two curls at the bottom. Therefore, this is a representation of a man. 
This is a photograph of the Parthenon. It is a higher symbol of hierarchy through its meaning and symbolism. It is the Temple of Athena. She was the goddess of wisdom. She was treasured by the Greeks and therefore, they made her portion of the Acropolis much more important and the most beautiful.  

" A passion for luxurious materials and techniques, a preoccupation with illusionistic devices which treated solid surfaces as transparent or otherwise optimized the dimensionality of the plane, and a predilection to elaborate any surface." ( Blakemore,pg.55) The Romans' emphasized heavily on ornamentation. They showed their power and place in society by making all of their buildings ostentatious and very gaudy. They also used a rather large scale for all of their buildings. To the Romans' the bigger the scale the better the building would be considered. For example, the Greeks', who built the Acropolis which consists of four main buildings. They are the Parthenon( the biggest building), the Propylaia (the gateway/porch), Erechteion( where the porch of the maidens lies), and last the Temple of Athena Nike. The Greeks' as well emphasized size. Although, the Romans' are the ones that really worked with a larger scale to create a very powerful modern day city. They used such a large scale not only to show their wealth but to portray how powerful the government authorities were because those were the figures that the buildings were all primarily built for. The Propylaia is one part of the Acropolis that is very awe inspiring due to its large scale. The point for the entrance to be so large was so that any "normal" individual meandering through the gateway would feel that they are definitely beneath a higher power. Both in Greek and Roman architecture their objective was to show that the Gods' have the most power overall. However, all of the four buildings that comprise to make the one overall building. The Acropolis is definitely a building with a lot of parts that make up one whole structural building. The Romans' not only used the exterior structure of their buildings to make their impression to society. They also showed power, wealth, and status with furniture design. One of the most prominent pieces of furniture during the time of the Romans' was the stool. It was made for only the wealthy to sit on because obviously the wealthy were the only ones that needed a place to sit. They as well were decorated very ornately and looked very exquisite. Blakemore, suggests that stools were of the up most importance as far as seating goes. Moreover, it was a symbol of legal authority. And that they were mainly used for the emperor or a magistrate. They were mostly gilded with bronze. The stools created by the Romans' generally always had a double reversed curve base. The stool is another piece of design that has become a true representation of what the Roman society was all about, "POWER."  
This image is one of my 2D thumbnail sketches of my original passageway project. This image shows order because it has a consistent pattern that emphasizes part of my project as a whole.
Order can be defined in many ways. It could refer to the relative disposition of objects to one another, or rather it also refers to the five main column types Doric, ionic, Corinthian, Tuscan, and composite. However, it is all relative to the proportion and ornamentation. Order really could stand to be any form of design or architecture that is established based upon uniform proportions. The Romans' developed several types of infrastructure and architectural elements that served as order. The Romans' actually had a lot of inspiration from the Greeks'. The Greeks' were the ones who originally used the columns. Although their columns were used more for structural support, where as the Romans' used them for more decorative purposes. The Romans'  and the Greeks' both used order in architecture with the Greeks' main architectural element, columns. Each column style that was originally created allowed room for expansion in design and representation for the next. For example, they began with the Doric which was a column with a much more feminine aesthetic. Then later they moved to the ionic which represented more of the "male" figure or masculine. Aside from the columns the Romans' created roadways, which brought a very prominent sense of order to their modern city. Their creation of roadways heavily showed the Romans' investment in infrastructure. They built their roadways to be very linear and based upon a grid pattern. These roadways helped direct and influence the Roman society as a whole. All of their roads were relative to one another. They had two types of roadways, the first being the cardo and the second being the decumanus. These roadways also established boundaries that not only applied to the roadways, moreover, they apply to the other design elements such as vaults and groin vaults that are also based upon a grid pattern. "The dimensions of the interior were enhanced by the spatial progression of the series of spaces along the axial arrangement in which there was alternation of size of space, of light level and of ceiling height." (Blakemore, pg.51) Order was essential in Roman design. Everything worked together, the vaults and groin vaults that connected with the walls that ran cohesively with the grid system that the roadways were based upon. Architecture and design of the Roman modern city were crucial if order was to occur throughout the city. 
Roman and Greek culture display many dimensions through their architecture and  their design. The Greeks' for example, really used the smaller temples they made as prototypes, of the ideal temple for their society, which happened to be the Temple of Athena which is otherwise known as the Parthenon. All of the other buildings designed before this temple were simply prototypes. However, all of the buildings following the Parthenon are hybrids. They are different versions of the Parthenon , or rather they celebrate different parts of the Parthenon within their own building. And through the discovery of these prototypes we get a new piece of architecture from the Romans' called a villa. The villa becomes a source of farmland which gives the society food, and it also acts as  retreating area for prime figures in society. Within both the Roman and Greek culture speaking and being pronounced were very important. So entourage was very important throughout their existence. It was apart of their culture. These people were very engaging and wanted to feel important and have people listen to them. Power was very important to these cultures, especially the Romans'. Their society derived from the concept of hierarchy. The Romans' were obsessed with wealth, and displaying their wealth. The portrayed this part of their culture through their ornamentation of their designs and architecture. Also order is very important. Order describes the grid system and design features that the Romans' based their infrastructure off of. Their roadways and ceilings were all based upon a horizontal alignment. Overall, the design elements of Rome and of Greece were collaborative to create the modern day city of Rome.  

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