REFLECTION. SOURCE. ROTATION. ILLUMINATION. MOVEMENT.Reflection
A reflection could most often be defined as the throwing back of by a body or surface of light, heat, or sound without absorbing it. An image seen in a mirror or shiny surface. It generally occurs when an element is being transferred perpendicularly through the plane to a point the same distance the other side of it. "Artfully placed in these carefully created "natural" landscapes were representations of historic or exotic buildings intended to induce reflection or even, as at Stourhead, the recreation of the places described in Virgil's Aeneid." (Roth, pg. 454) However, there are other kinds of reflections. The previous quote is depicting that all the natural landscaping that had become so popular from a design perspective, was simply an extraction of ideas from Virgil's Aeneid. Therefore, the natural landscapes become a reflection on the not only the Virgil's Aeneid, but other historic places. Another example, would be in the eighteenth and nineteenth century, the Industrial Revolution was occurring. This happened to be when we were creating new technologies to better our architecture, design, and overall outlook on life. However, what made it really take off was the steady, superfluous amount of information that was being transferred from east to the west. This allowed Western design to reflect Easter design and vise versa. "Besides taking in the recreated pastoral environment, the visitor to the park could sit on a bench, face the Pantheon across the lake and reflect on virgils pastoral Georgics." (Roth, pg. 454) This is important because it is necessity to have correlation amongst the lands and the building. Otherwise, it is completely irrelevant to its designated place. "Or the intent might be to induce reflections on local history by showing medieval architecture, an idea that had first enlarged thirty or so years earlier."(Roth, pg. 454) However, you can see that history is extremely important for design. Like the quote entails, they are taking from past architectural eras, like the medieval for example and incorporating it in their era. Therefore, allowing their era to be reflective of theirs in order to enrich their overall design. Another prime example of reflection would be the Place de Vosges. It was a series of town homes in which middle class people lived. However, the facade is connected to make it appear to be one main palace. It was an act of the middle class trying to copy the Palace of Versailles. They wanted to appear as though they were just as wealthy as royalty. Its major theme was uniformity to create a massive place of residency. In studio we recently did a project entitled "third skin" that we had to use medium density fiber board and a natural element to incorporate light, shadow, and an intimate moment with the project itself. However, the project had to become a reflection or an essence of our natural element. So in this case the reflection of our natural element became about capturing the essence.
A source is a broad term. For instance, it could be a book or document used to provide evidence in research. Or perhaps it could be a person that provides information, a water source. Moreover, it is an object of which something can be obtained. " Aside from allusions to the Pastoral Roman and Greek past in garden pavilions...and the references to England's medieval past, all manner of associations were made to places and times far away.(Roth, pg. 456) They began to gather many different styles and took different characteristics from these styles. For example, Greek structures inspired vernacular structures. Another example, would be the Castle Howard, by Indigo Jones. However, instead of borrowing on the Greek ideas, it borrows on Gothic ideas. This is when natural landscaping becoming very prominent in design. Another prime example, would be the Parson Capson House. It took on the look of a cabin, like from England. This is all resulting from the trade that was occurring during this time. Also major elements in design due to the Industrial Revolution became glass and iron. These were elements being incorporated in all areas of design. The Place Vendome, for example began to bring artifacts back form other places. Also this is when the language comes by way of the buildings. Sources are all about language in the written and spoken form. It is all about the historic preservation of a civilization and/or culture in order to all design of today to be inspired.
Rotation is the action of rotating around an axis or center; or the passing of a privilege or responsibility from one member of a group to another in a regularly recurring succession."It is also the uniform variation in a sequence of rhythm. " With these concepts in mind, we can say that the modern epoch begins in the eighteenth century, in what has come to be called the Age of Enlightenment. What precipitated these fundamental social changes was a cycle interrelated sweeping reorganizations and upheavals that collectively can be labled revolutions. "(Roth, pg. 439) In architecture and design it became important to have a major focus that kept on evolving and incorporating more and more elements into the present day design. Rotation is heavily correlated with the design cycle. This is so, due to the fact that it is recurring elements and becomes a collection of phases of design. Generally, rotation is key to having a revival. Our design today is compressed and infused with elements of the Greek, Roman, Egyptian, Venetian styles of design. Therefore, there is a rotation of selection of elements from all variety of different cultures in order to encompass our modernistic design style as of present day in order to create "Delight." "These revolutions are so interconnected that they can be thought of as operating in a circle, each fading into the next." ( Roth, pg. 439) A rotation is a part of a whole of a design revolution. It preludes you to the next part of occurring design elements.
Illumination could be described as a display of lights on a building or bringing something into the light. Also it includes the figurative or spiritual enlightenment. Illumination goes hand in hand with an architecture par lent. An architecture par lent happens to be an idea that grew out of the French enlightenment, where the rules of architecture began to be written down. Therefore, it was the beginnings of a new language, an architectural language. During the Industrial Revolution brought about new design materials glass and iron. Glass especially dealt heavily with light. It was actually the first time a designer could use a material to allow natural light into a space without having to create large open windows or archways. Where as when glass was created, a designer could use glass, and automatically create a situation that involves an illuminated part of a space that; therefore, created a more intimate moment. "However all-persuasive the Victorian middle-class desire to express comfort and wealth, the aesthetic standard of the interior disturbed contemporary critics, and a large body of writing appeared during the nineteenth century to give advice on taste and interior design." (Massey, pg. 8)
Massey, in this quote displayed to illuminate the Victorian middle-class and how that time of design was a major part of society. It was all about comfort and wealth, that were both qualities that allowed light to be shed onto the middle class. "The key point for the Arts and crafts movement was the chair..." (Massey, pg. 15) One of the most important elements of furniture design was the chair of the Arts and Crafts movement. They really wanted to focus on craft and make sure that quality is first priority when creating a chair. The chair was definitely an illuminated piece of furniture during the nineteenth century. A prime example of illumination is the hall of mirrors in the Palace of Versailles. The use of the mirrors in this hallway went directly with the king's thirst for power and all things big. The mirrors allowed the hallway to look much larger than it actually was. Therefore, the illumination given off by the mirrors created intense opulence and a real dramatic appearance.
Movement is the act of changing physical location or position or of having this changed; general activity or bustles of people or things in a particular place. Also it refers to the quality of suggesting motion in a work of art. It becomes a change or development in something or a group of people working together to advance their shared political, social, or artistic ideas.
"Whereas previously decisions about the style of interiors had concerned chiefly the upper classes, who were advised by the architect, plasterer or upholster, this changed with the Industrial Revolution, and the rise of new bourgeoise, anxious to communicate its newfound prosperity in terms of visual culture but insecure in its own taste." ( Massey, pg. 7) As you can see the Arts and Craft movement impacted the ways of which people designed and created spaces. For example, the ways in which they begun to use plaster on interior walls to create intricate patterns. These patterns were not only apart of a movement but they also created movement within a space. Along with these patterns the materials list grew as far as architecture and design go. This especially happened during the Industrial Revolution movement when new technologies came to be pronounced. For example, glass and iron.
All of the words have created a language that is about finding new materials, exploration, and comprising elements of past civilizations. They all comprise the revolution of new design for the duration of the Arts and Crafts movement.