"What came to be seen later as the cultural meaningless of the spare minimalism of modernism produced the reaction of post modernism, emerging first around 1965, in the work of such American architects, as Robert Venturi and Charles Moore. Over the following decades, the initial Postmodernism split into a number of variants that have continued into the early twenty-first century." (pg. 471, Roth) During the uprise of the modernist period designers and architects began to create a new language within their design. Western designers, begun to incorporate Eastern design into their own. It was a definite conscious effort to combine the two to create what the considered to be a masterpiece of the time. Then it only was a matter of time before Chinese and other eastern exports were specifically designed for western audiences. Although, the collaboration of east and west was a great start to new design, architects began to explore more minimalist design in the sense they are taking from past periods of design. Therefore, these revivals begin to occur and designers and architects began to take from the Greeks, Egyptians and other past cultures. This made their designs minimalist due to the fact they were not new building types, they had already been seen before. Therefore, with using architectural elements from these past cultures they created their own language of minimalism. This past weekend when IARC traveled to Monticello and Falling Water we had to discover what each of these buildings were saying, and further more what their language to the world was. At Monticello the language to me was about capturing history of America, while also incorporating architectural history from Europe. In my perception, Jefferson created a language that was about making everyone at they day in time with the exception of the slaves feel welcome to his home, and like there was something for them. It was more of a public home where people could experience all of the legible history that Jefferson brought into Monticello. However, at Falling Water the language was more of a private one. Wright created this modern stylized home that was nestled deep in the woods, mostly for retreat purposes. It was completely private for the family he designed it for. The language of Falling Water also came across as more private due to the fact that for the most part he used all indigenous materials such as the stone used throughout the entire house. The main language to me was that the house was supposed to appear as though it really was not there, more so that it was apart of nature.
"The creation of this public museum was the logical extension of practice in the preceding century when under the influence of the philosophies and princes had been opening their residences to the public so that their collections of painting and sculpture could be viewed and studied." (pg. 473, Roth) Public and private became majorly emphasized themes towards the reaching of the twentieth century. People before this time had never really considered creating a private space. However, the more accepted theme of this time was to create public buildings. Designers wanted to create buildings that were for everyones' use. For example, the Boston Public Library which was founded in 1895. It was a public space where people could come to gather knowledge. However, this particular public space, was a mix from the classical revival. Then soon to be, designers and architects begun to design more directed towards a private building type. One prominent example that I can think of as a private space is Falling Water, designed by Frank Lloyd Wright. He really emphasized that the space was private by making it so secluded and extracted from the rest of the city itself. " The image of classical order came to be strongly associated with public buildings, and the role of public buildings...in elevating public virtue: one example, was Leo von Klenze's sculpture built in Munich, for Ludwig, the King of Bavartia. "( pg. 472, Roth) However, I do think that public buildings greatly inspired the innovation for private buildings. Especially being that people began to want a place all to themselves where they can escape. I feel that this quote is a great contrast to the acceptance of private spaces.
" Eclecticism- the informed and selective borrowing of historical building forms and details, rooted in associationalism- can be viewed as developing in a series of sequential related phases extending all the way from early eighteenth century to present day." ( pg. 470, Roth) Virtual is the existing and depicting of something to the point that it appears to be real, however, it is not actually looking and experiencing it in real life. To me eclecticism is a great example of virtual. Because we borrow from all different styles of design to consider something eclectic which is not a style all to its own. The design would still be considered a collaboration of styles. Therefore, an eclectic styling method becomes virtual. It is a mixture of historical forms and details, that compliment one another to form a design aesthetic that is not a classified one but one that is composed of so many other details to the point that it actually becomes its own style. Virtual is actually an illusion of a real image. As Roth described eclecticism it is a series of related phases, which is true to the word virtual. An image or style becomes so layered up one another that it becomes an imitated image or style of a real one.
" In rare cases, architects were engaged to design factory administrative offices.One interesting example was John Marshall's Flax Mill in Leeds, designed by Joseph Bononi in a massive Egyptian style. Another result of this factory building system was de facto standardization of prefabricated parts in the cast iron columns and wrought-iron beams. The same technique was also being used for the production of parts in greenhouses to protect exotic tropical plants being brought to England and other areas of Northern Europe. " ( pg. 486, Roth)
Craft and technique are collaborative words that implicate and reflect new materials of the late nineteenth century. For example, the John Marshall's Flax Mill is a prime example of technique used throughout the building. Joseph Bononi used similar techniques to that of Egyptian style of design. He also had to use techniques that best worked with creating his designs with the materials that he had such as the wrought iron and glass." The alternative was a new approach to building design in which historically derived details were inventively manipulated in buildings planned strictly in accord wit contemporary, functional requirements... but architects and others enjoyed more extensive and better informed education, the styles were applied with greater restraint and archeological accuracy, in proportion and details." ( pg. 482, Roth)
These words are key words that best describe the modern movement and even the Arts and Crafts movement. Craft and technique for example, are words that show how designers and architects valued amazing craft. Therefore, they created new techniques and ways a designing buildings that allowed the to best work with their new materials such as glass, concrete, and wrought-iron. People of this time also were in the process of developing their own design language. This allowed them to create and develop their own techniques and level of craft that raised the bar for design of that time.